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Math Help - Deduce result by solving equation?

  1. #1
    Super Member fardeen_gen's Avatar
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    Deduce result by solving equation?

    Solve the equation Z^7 + 1 = 0 to deduce that \cos \frac{\pi}{7}\cos\frac{3\pi}{7}\cos\frac{5\pi}{7} = -\frac{1}{8}
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  2. #2
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    Getting started...

    Well, if z^7=-1, then e^{7\theta i}=e^{\pi i}, so 7\theta=\pi, for \theta\in[0,2\pi).

    So z=e^{i\theta} for \theta=\frac\pi7,\frac{3\pi}7,\frac{5\pi}7,\pi,\fr  ac{9\pi}7,\frac{11\pi}7,\frac{13\pi}7

    But why would Re[z_1]Re[z_2]Re[z_3]=-\frac18?
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  3. #3
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    Writing Media_Man's answer in a slightly different form, the solutions of z^7+1=0 are z=-1,\:e^{\pm \pi i/7},\:e^{\pm3\pi i/7},\:e^{\pm5\pi i/7}. Therefore z^7+1 = (z+1)(z-e^{\pi i/7})(z-e^{-\pi i/7})(z-e^{3\pi i/7}) (z-e^{-3\pi i/7})(z-e^{5\pi i/7})(z-e^{-5\pi i/7}). But (z-e^{\pi i/7})(z-e^{-\pi i/7}) = z^2-2z\cos\tfrac\pi7+1, and similarly for the other two complex conjugate pairs. Also, z^7+1 = (z+1)(z^6-z^5+z^4-z^3+z^2-z+1). It follows that

    (z^2-2z\cos\tfrac{\pi}7+1) (z^2-2z\cos\tfrac{3\pi}7+1) (z^2-2z\cos\tfrac{5\pi}7+1) = z^6-z^5+z^4-z^3+z^2-z+1.

    Compare coefficients of z to see that -2\bigl(\cos\tfrac{\pi}7 + \cos\tfrac{3\pi}7 + \cos\tfrac{5\pi}7\bigr) = -1. Then compare coefficients of z^3 to see that -4\bigl(\cos\tfrac{\pi}7 + \cos\tfrac{3\pi}7 + \cos\tfrac{5\pi}7\bigr) -8\cos\tfrac{\pi}7\cos\tfrac{3\pi}7\cos\tfrac{5\pi}  7 = -1. From those last two equations you find that \cos\tfrac{\pi}7\cos\tfrac{3\pi}7\cos\tfrac{5\pi}7 = -1/8.
    Last edited by Opalg; May 26th 2009 at 06:39 AM. Reason: loads of typos
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