Hello, RubyRed!

We have: .How do I manipulate to show that it equals

Multiply by

Note that: .

Substitute into [1]: .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

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~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

** . The last step uses the identity:

. . . .