Start with (d) which is the most straightforward.

The quotient rule states:

Here

So

This gives us which can of course be simplified.

The others involve the chain rule, which you'd best look up in the book because you need your wits about you.

You must have been away from class a long time, because this subject takes up quite a few lessons.

The chain rule says:

Let .

Then .

Start with (b) because it's easiest.

Here and .

So and .

So .

The others are a combination of chain rule and product rule (except (e) which is the sum of two separate terms which is easy).

Oh yeah, the product rule:

.