How is the step (red-boxed) formed?

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- December 7th 2010, 12:04 AMcloud5Intergration
How is the step (red-boxed) formed?

Attachment 20006 - December 7th 2010, 12:12 AMEducated
Using the trig identity

Then:

Since there is a on both the denominator and numerator, they cancel out.

Then by using power reducing formulas:

- December 7th 2010, 12:15 AMDrSteve
is the standard power reducing formula which is worth memorizing for a calculus class since it is used so often.

You can derive it by writing in terms of and solving for .