Not everybody has to be a math type. I wish every success with this.
I'm not that surprised you haven't had replies yet ... your questions need more context. I'll do what I can.
36 and 39. In calculus, we learn how to calculate compound interest, usually assuming instantaneous compounding. That's actually simpler, if you're a pure math type. In real life, I assume these problems would be solved with a spreadsheet, that is, there would be a separate calculation for each month, using the previous month's result as an input. Not so hard, but a lot of brute-force calculation. I wonder what your class asks you to do exactly? Use a spreadsheet program? If you just want the answers, there are online calculators that will do the math for you. Try Home - English | MyMoney or Yahoo! Finance - Personal Finance | Calculators.
54. You need a conversion factor. I'm guessing your book gives a table. But you can get an online calculator for that also. Try Inflation Rate Calculator- from InflationData.com. It says $2400 in 1963 would be $18,142.51 in 2012 dollars. Of course life has changed so much in 49 years, it doesn't make much sense to say that.
58. What's the base year for the CPI? Been a long time for me, but I seem to remember the Department of Labor BLS once upon a time picked a year when CPI was defined to 100, and all subsequent prices were measured relative to that. I'm guessing your book was published in 2002. It probably gives a CPI for that year. Then all you have to do is multiply that number by 1.03 ten times. Here's a website: Consumer Price Index Archived News Releases The price of a gallon of gas in five years would be whatever it is now (I think I saw 3.45 this morning) times 1.03 five times. A calculator will do that easily.
Dollhouses? I'm not familiar with the term "linear scaling factor," but I assume the number you want is 1/12 (one on the dollhouse, twelve on the "real" house it might resemble.) I think this is usually called "one-inch scale." The scale for volume is the cube of this, 1/1728. The real house that resembles the dollhouse would weight 1728 times as much.
10. I think what you want to say is "one-third as many Democrats voted for it." The meaning seems clear to me. I'd describe that as an error in diction, not math. In any case, we don't usually say "three times fewer."
Hope this helps. And if anybody can correct any errors of mine, or can offer anything better, let me know.