For share price, there are tonnes of services that specialize in financial data and its analysis and organization, but you might want to check Yahoo! Finance for share data.
For CEO pay, try googling and checking those corporate business magazines for footnotes, references or reports for CEO pay: they love to do articles on that kind of thing. If not Forbes, then check similar sources. Also be aware that some CEO's love to brag and some don't.
For public companies, get the public data and for private then go digging and decide how valuable the data is.
For inflation rate the government publish statistics on this (the relevant departments) but they are usually lying and fudging the numbers: Check out a source like shadowstats or something similar.
Exchange rate data should be public information.
As mentioned above for CEO pay (and to expand on it a little), you need to understand who would want to know about this and its exactly the reason why I suggested things like Forbes magazine (amongst others) and some of those financial magazines designed to tell its readers how pathetic you are and how good someone else is: they make money off doing this kind of thing and people buy it so it must floats at least a few peoples boats.
I'd also check out MBA books on the subject that so studies on CEO's (serious studies, not those stupid paparazzi pieces) and these are guaranteed to talk about the pay factor for CEO's amongst other things. Any associated MBA or business material should lead you somewhere useful.