This is a combinatorial problem (permutation, specifically), common in building an intuition with probabilities. There are formulas for how to calculate these (permutation of n terms is n!, i.e., n factorial), but with small examples like this it is always good to work it out and see the result first-hand. Let A, B, C, and D stand for the four possible beads. The possible (4! = 24) combinations are then determined by the possible position slots that can be filled. We will have 4 "bases" as I think of them. There is an A base, B base, C base, and D base. In each of these bases are 6 possible combinations of the remaining three slots. Thus, we have another calculation 4! = 4*6 = 24. Once we have a base, we define three other slots. So, for example, consider the A base. Once A is in the first slot, the other three can be filled with a B second, C second, and D second. In each of these that only leaves two remaining. We can actually draw this process like a tree: see here.
I will list the terms including their base and 2nd slots.
As you can see, there are six total in the A base. We get the same result with the others.
So as you can see, setting them up is just a simple computation of filling slots and ordering what pieces you have left after you made a choice for a slot. Doing it in a uniform manner like I did above (listing them in alphabetical order, if you didn't notice), helps when it is possible. Now consider other small examples like a 3-slot problem (a subset of this one, actually). Except now think of it in terms of numbers. How many ways can you order the sequence (0, 1, 2)? Clearly it will be smaller than 4!. In fact, we already know the answer, but why is it 3!? Well, think about slots again. There's going to be 3 bases in this permutation, and that only leaves two remainders which can be listed in order or inverted. Thus, for each base we only really have is two choices. Thus, 3 * 2 = 3! = 6.