1. ## e^ix

didnt know where to post this sorry

how do we know that e^ix is a circle when plotted??

2. Originally Posted by hmmmm
didnt know where to post this sorry

how do we know that e^ix is a circle when plotted??
$\displaystyle e^{ix} = \cos x + i \sin x$, thus if we let $\displaystyle x = \cos x$ and $\displaystyle y = \sin x$ then the coordinates of the points we use to plot the graph will be of the form $\displaystyle (\cos x, \sin x)$ which results in a circle of radius 1

3. Originally Posted by hmmmm
didnt know where to post this sorry

how do we know that e^ix is a circle when plotted??
Show that $\displaystyle |e^{ix}|=1$.
This is true because $\displaystyle e^{ix} = \cos x + i \sin x \implies |e^{ix}| = \cos^2 x + \sin^2 x = 1$

4. If $\displaystyle \cos x + i \sin x = e^{ix} = a + ib$, then $\displaystyle a^2 + b^2 = 1$. But then $\displaystyle a^2 + b^2 = 1$ is the equation of a circle with unit radius and origin as center in a-b plane.

5. ## thanks

thanks but the part i dont understand is how do you know that e^ix can be represented as cosx+isinx?? sorry
thanks for the help

6. Originally Posted by hmmmm
thanks but the part i dont understand is how do you know that e^ix can be represented as cosx+isinx?? sorry
thanks for the help
Euler's formula - Wikipedia

7. Originally Posted by Jhevon
$\displaystyle e^{ix} = \cos x + i \sin x$, thus if we let $\displaystyle x = \cos x$ and $\displaystyle y = \sin x$ then the coordinates of the points we use to plot the graph will be of the form $\displaystyle (\cos x, \sin x)$ which results in a circle of radius 1
It may help to be able to derive Euler's formula from the polar form of a complex number $\displaystyle \cos{x} + i\sin{x}$. We can do this using derivatives.

Let $\displaystyle z = \cos{x} + i\sin{x}$.

$\displaystyle \frac{dz}{dx} = -\sin{x} + i\cos{x}$.

But since $\displaystyle i^2 = -1$

$\displaystyle \frac{dz}{dx} = i^2\sin{x} + i\cos{x}$

$\displaystyle \frac{dz}{dx} = i(\cos{x} + i\sin{x})$

$\displaystyle \frac{dz}{dx} = iz$.

If we divide both sides by z, we get

$\displaystyle \frac{1}{z}\frac{dz}{dx} = i$

and so integrating both sides with respect to x gives

$\displaystyle \int{\frac{1}{z}\frac{dz}{dx}\,dx} = \int{i\,dx}$

$\displaystyle \int{\frac{1}{z}\,dz} = ix + C$

$\displaystyle \ln|z| = ix + C$

$\displaystyle |z| = e^{ix + C}$

$\displaystyle |z| = e^Ce^{ix}$

$\displaystyle z = \pm e^Ce^{ix}$

$\displaystyle z = Ae^{ix}$.

$\displaystyle \cos{x} + i\sin{x} = Ae^{ix}$.

Substituting $\displaystyle x = 0$ into the equation gives $\displaystyle A = 1$.

So $\displaystyle z = \cos{x} + i\sin{x} = e^{ix}$.

And since we know $\displaystyle \cos{x} + i\sin{x}$ is a circle of radius 1, so must be $\displaystyle e^{ix}$.

8. Originally Posted by Prove It
It may help to be able to derive Euler's formula from the polar form of a complex number $\displaystyle \cos{x} + i\sin{x}$. We can do this using derivatives.

Let $\displaystyle z = \cos{x} + i\sin{x}$.

$\displaystyle \frac{dz}{dx} = -\sin{x} + i\cos{x}$.

But since $\displaystyle i^2 = -1$

$\displaystyle \frac{dz}{dx} = i^2\sin{x} + i\cos{x}$

$\displaystyle \frac{dz}{dx} = i(\cos{x} + i\sin{x})$

$\displaystyle \frac{dz}{dx} = iz$.

If we divide both sides by z, we get

$\displaystyle \frac{1}{z}\frac{dz}{dx} = i$

and so integrating both sides with respect to x gives

$\displaystyle \int{\frac{1}{z}\frac{dz}{dx}\,dx} = \int{i\,dx}$

$\displaystyle \int{\frac{1}{z}\,dz} = ix + C$

$\displaystyle \ln|z| = ix + C$

$\displaystyle |z| = e^{ix + C}$

$\displaystyle |z| = e^Ce^{ix}$

$\displaystyle z = \pm e^Ce^{ix}$

$\displaystyle z = Ae^{ix}$.

$\displaystyle \cos{x} + i\sin{x} = Ae^{ix}$.

Substituting $\displaystyle x = 0$ into the equation gives $\displaystyle A = 1$.

So $\displaystyle z = \cos{x} + i\sin{x} = e^{ix}$.

And since we know $\displaystyle \cos{x} + i\sin{x}$ is a circle of radius 1, so must be $\displaystyle e^{ix}$.
Proof by calculus does require making some assumptions about complex derivatives. However, it can be proved that convenient properties (such as the chain rule) carry over from R to C.

Personally I prefer the proof by Maclaurin series.

You can also work with $\displaystyle e^{ix} = \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} \left( 1 + \frac{ix}{n} \right)^n$. It's not too hard to show that the modulus is equal to 1 and that the argument is equal to x (I leave this for others who are interested).

9. Originally Posted by mr fantastic
Proof by calculus does require making some assumptions about complex derivatives. However, it can be proved that convenient properties (such as the chain rule) carry over from R to C.

Personally I prefer the proof by Maclaurin series.

You can also work with $\displaystyle e^{ix} = \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} \left( 1 + \frac{ix}{n} \right)^n$. It's not too hard to show that the modulus is equal to 1 and that the argument is equal to x (I leave this for others who are interested).
I KNEW you'd point that out Mr F. I tend to prefer this way just because it's more pleasing to the eyes (at least to my eyes). But you are right - I deliberately left out that piece of information to keep it simple for the OP

10. ## thanks

thanks but how then do we prove that the attributes of real numbers and thier derivatives can be applied to complex numbers??

11. Originally Posted by hmmmm
thanks but how then do we prove that the attributes of real numbers and thier derivatives can be applied to complex numbers??
haha, short answer, but probably not the answer you want, is to study complex analysis. a complex analysis text will go through all the proofs and show what things carry over from real analysis and what things don't. you will find that complex analysis is a lot like working in $\displaystyle \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R}$. and so derivatives are defined in the same way, but the limits are taken differently. this leaves a lot of familiar properties intact though. you can look these things up if you're interested.

thanks