I'm not quite sure what the second question says, but for the first question you'll be needing common denominators. Working on the numerator first, we have . To get a common denominator, multiply so that you get . Subtracting yields . Can you simplify the denominator?
the bottom one, with many parantheses, says 4+(d/(4+(4/(4+d))))
i simplified the bottom part, but what do i do next?
For the first question, you should have gotten as the denominator, which leaves you with . Now, you can rearrange this (using the reciprocal rule) to . You can cancel out x^2 in the top and bottom to yield and then remove a factor of x-1 from both top and bottom to yield and that's as simplified as it gets.
For the second question, using the parentheses, work from the inside out, using common denominators to combine fractions.