first one.
Rules of indices maybe? do you know them ?
difference of two square ?
factoring quads ?
have you never done a question like these before ?
Tip: Review over exponents in algebra
Tip: When you need to factor a term like this, it is usually a multiplication of conjugates.
Tip: Look at the constant term and list all the ways you can multiply two numbers to equal it. Then find the pair of numbers that add up to the coefficient in the middle.
You want where and