When you alter a graph, you transform it. If you transform a graph without changing its shape, you translate it. Vertical and horizontal transformations are translations. When y = f(x) + d, shift (translate) the graph of y = f(x) vertically (upward if d > 0, downward if d < 0).
Example: 1. Problem: Translate y = x2 upward by 1. Solution: You have been asked to shift the graph upward 1. Rewrite the equation to do this, and then graph. y = x2 + 1 The figure below is a graph of the solution.
When y = f(x + c), translate the graph of y = f(x) horizontally (left if c > 0, right if c < 0).
Example: 2. Problem: Sketch the graph of y = |x + 2|. Solution: First, graph y = |x|, then shift it to the left 2 places. The figure below is a graph of the solution.
I saw this online and i was wondering how can you tell if it's a Horizontal Translation or Vertical one? If so, what are usually these translation used for?