well im not to sure how you would do this without differentiation,

however the max values of the function are found at the global extrama, which are a member of [-1,1] so if we find the turning point by differentiation, it should be at x= -b/2a and then if we assume this is in [-1,1] and then show that the corresponding value of f is less than or equal to 3/2, i think this works