This should give you a kick off
Mathematical proof - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Can someone provide me with a list of the more common types (methods?) of mathematical proofs -- their names. For example, Induction, Cantor's Diagonal, etc., . . . Or, just as good, can someone direct me to a Website or book that discusses the various types of Math. proofs (i.e., how to prove "things" mathematical.) I am definitely not a "math. expert" (yet and have a long way to go!) so am not interested right now in the more "esoteric" type of proofs. Hope this makes sense.
This should give you a kick off
Mathematical proof - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia