Directions are simple either convert from polar to Cartesian or vice versa...

1.

Then....

Now, my book has and I just can't see how they got it, maybe I'm skipping something or making a mistake, but I can't see it as of now.

And...

2.

I got it to...

But that doesn't seem right, so there's probably something obvious I'm missing.

Also, as intuitive as it seems

and are both

and are both

Thanks for the help.