There are polynomials of degree 10 (for each power of x from 0 to 9 inclusive, there are two possible choices of coefficient, namely 0 or 1).

So, how many of these can be factored into a product of linear or quadratic factors? There are two possible linear factors ( and ) and one irreducible quadratic factor ( ). For a polynomial of degree 10 with k copies of the quadratic factor (k=0,1,2,3,4 or 5), there are 11–2k ways of choosing the remaining linear factors (for j=0,1,2,...,10–2k you can choose j of them to be the factor x and the remaining ones to be the factor x+1).

That should give you enough information to calculate the proportion of degree 10 polynomials that have the required form of factorisation.