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Math Help - Modular Exponentiation

  1. #1
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    Modular Exponentiation

    I'm struggling to understand why the following is true:

    x^d mod p = x^(d mod (p-1)) mod p

    Can anyone help to explain this?
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  2. #2
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    Quote Originally Posted by timorrill View Post
    x^d mod p = x^(d mod (p-1)) mod p

    Can anyone help to explain this?
    Assuming \gcd(x,p)=1.

    Let  e = d \bmod p-1.
    Let k = \text{ord}(x).

    Then x^d \equiv x^e (\bmod p) if and only if d\equiv e (\bmod k) if and only if k|(d-e). But (p-1)|(d-e) and k|(p-1) so k|(d-e).
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