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**ncshields** Here are several problems that I have been trying to work on but have not gotten very far. Any thoughts?

1) Suppose that p is an odd prime. Show that 1^(p-1) + 2^(p-1) + ... + (p-1)^(p-1) is congruent to -1 (mod p).

2) Verify that sigma(p^n) - p^n = ((p^n) - 1)/(p-1) for n = 1,2,...

3)In assignment 4, we showed that Z_m - {0} = {1,2,...,m-1} is not always a group under multiplication modulo m. Write Z*_m for the set of all elements in Z_m which have a multiplicative inverse in Z_m.

(a) Prove that a in Z*_m if and only if (a; m) = 1. Conclude that Z*_m has exactly phi(m) elements.

(b) Verify that Z*_m is a group under multiplication modulo m. Conclude that a phi(m)= 1 for a in Z*_m.