This seems like a relatively simple computational problem (in fact I know how to do it for 2^91 divided by 7) but I am not sure how to apply the same process here.
My question: What is the remainder when 314^162 is divided by 7? (using congruences)
I will explain a bit. I think he did not get the direct steps, and skipping. For all these questions, you take the bases modulo first. In case of 2^91 or something, you first raise it to sufficient power that you can take a different modulus than 2, namely, you raise to power 3, it becomes 2 * (2^3)^30 = 2 * 8^30. Since now, 8's modulo is 1 w.r.t 7, then we have, 2 * 8^30 = 2 * 1^30 = 2 (mod 7). Similarly, with 314^162, first take remainder of 314 w.r.t 7, which gives 6 or -1. If you raise this remainder to 162, which is an even number, that will give 1 as the remainder.