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Math Help - proving two expressions can be squares

  1. #1
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    proving two expressions can be squares

    Hi,

    If it is known that (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2) is a perfect square
    where A, B, C and D are integers, A and B are coprime, C and D are coprime and D > C >= B > A > 0

    then
    (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)+4(A^2-B^2)CD can be a perfect square..........(1)
    and \ (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)-4(A^2-B^2)CD can be a perfect square..........(2)

    but can it be proven that (1) and (2) can't be perfect squares simultaneously (or examples to the contrary) ?

    Examples

    A = 1, B = 2, C = 2, D = 11

    (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)=25^2
    (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)+4(A^2-B^2)CD=19^2
    \ (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)-4(A^2-B^2)CD is not a perfect square

    A = 1, B = 2, C = 58, D = 209

    (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)=485^2
    (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)+4(A^2-B^2)CD is not a perfect square
    \ (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)-4(A^2-B^2)CD=617^2

    thank you




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  2. #2
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    Re: proving two expressions can be squares

    Well, recognize that what you want to construct is an arithmetic progression of three squares, where the middle square is (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2) and the common difference is 4(B^2-A^2)CD (reversing the order to indicate B > A). There is a parametric formula for progressions of three squares that says: X^2,Y^2,Z^2 = (a^2-2ab-b^2)^2,(a^2+b^2)^2,(-a^2-2ab+b^2)^2 for a<b, giving a common difference of a^2-2ab-b^2. (Click here for a wonderful proof that this captures all of them.) So, your question becomes:

    Find positive integers A,B,C,D,a,b with (A,B)=(C,D)=1, A<B\le C<D satisfying
    (A^2+B^2)(C^2+D^2)=(a^2+b^2)^2 and 4(B^2-A^2)CD=a^2-2ab-b^2

    You might start by isolating a in the first equation, subbing it into the second, and attempting to isolate b. Not sure if this is possible directly because this gives you a quartic polynomial on b, but if you can, then the problem will reduce to proving when or whether your expression b=f(A,B,C,D) evaluates to an integer. I know I'm being lazy, but that should give you something to chew on.
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  3. #3
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    Re: proving two expressions can be squares

    Assume that they are both perfect squares, i.e.


    (A^2 + B^2)(C^2 + D^2) + 4(A^2 - B^2)CD = k^2
    (A^2 + B^2)(C^2 + D^2) - 4(A^2 - B^2)CD = m^2.

    Note the constraint, 0 < A < B, so A^2 - B^2 < 0. Taking their difference (and switching order a bit),


    m^2 - k^2 = 8(B^2 - A^2)CD


    What happens if 8CD is a perfect square? For example, try C = 32, D = 49. I'll let you play around with that.
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