Hi, need a some help with this proof.
Prove the multiplicative order of is for odd prime .
How do I go about this?
Thank You for any help.
um, no....
the coefficent of p in the expansion is p:
where all the remaining terms involve higher powers of p.
thus .
so the multiplicative order of p+1 (mod p^2) has to divide p. what are our choices, given that p is an odd prime?