# Primitive Root proof

• April 25th 2010, 11:11 AM
Tand
Primitive Root proof
Let p = 2^(k) + 1 be a prime. Prove that if a is a natural number and a is a quadratic non-residue modulo p, then a is a primitive root modulo p.

thanks :)
• April 25th 2010, 11:32 AM
chiph588@
Quote:

Originally Posted by Tand
Let p = 2^(k) + 1 be a prime. Prove that if a is a natural number and a is a quadratic non-residue modulo p, then a is a primitive root modulo p.

thanks :)

Euler's Criterion says $-1 = \left(\frac{a}{p}\right) \equiv a^{(p-1)/2} \bmod{p}$

But $\frac{p-1}{2} = 2^{k-1}$, so we know $a^{2^{k-1}}\equiv -1 \bmod{p}$.

Now all the divisors of $\phi(p)$ are of the form $2^b$ where $b\leq k$. So suppose there exists $b < k-1$ such that $a^{2^b}\equiv 1\bmod{p}$. This would however imply $a^{2^{k-1}}\equiv 1 \bmod{p}$ since $2^b\mid2^{k-1}$, which is a contradiction.

Thus we see for every proper divisor $b$ of $\phi(p)$, $a^b\not\equiv 1 \bmod{p}\implies a$ is a primitive root modulo $p$.