1. ## prove that :

$prove \ that \ \exists x \in R \ such \ that \ x^2=2$

2. Do you know the definition of $\mathbb{R}$ as the completion of $\mathbb{Q}$ under taking limits of Cauchy sequences?

If, so, just show that there exists a Cauchy sequence of rationals whose limit has a square equal to 2.

3. Originally Posted by Bruno J.
Do you know the definition of $\mathbb{R}$ as the completion of $\mathbb{Q}$ under taking limits of Cauchy sequences?

If, so, just show that there exists a Cauchy sequence of rationals whose limit has a square equal to 2.
i really don't know !!!!

4. Let $A=\{a\in\mathbb R:a>0,\,a^2<2\}.$ $A\ne\O$ as e.g. $1\in A.$ Also $A$ is bounded above. $\therefore\ x=\sup A$ exists. Note that $1\leqslant x$ since $1\in A.$

Suppose $x^2>2.$ Then $\frac{x^2-2}{2x}>0$ and so $\exists\,n\in\mathbb N$ such that $0<\frac1n<\frac{x^2-2}{2x}.$ Then

$\left(x-\frac1n\right)^2\ =\ x^2-\frac{2x}n+\frac1{n^2}\ >\ x^2-\frac{2x}n\ >\ x^2-(x^2-2)\ =\ 2$

so $a\in A\ \Rightarrow\ a^2<2<\left(x-\frac1n\right)^2\ \Rightarrow\ a contradicting the leastness of $x.$

Now suppose $x^2<2.$ Choose a natural number $n$ such that $0<\frac1n\leqslant\frac{2-x^2}{4x}$ and $\frac1n<2x.$ Then

$\left(x+\frac1n\right)^2\ =\ x^2+\frac{2x}n+\frac1{n^2}\ <\ x^2+\frac{2x}n+\frac{2x}n\ \leqslant\ x^2+2-x^2\ =\ 2$

so $x+\frac1n\in A$ contradicting the fact that $x$ is an upper bound for $A.$

Since both $x^2<2$ and $x^2>2$ lead to a contradiction, we conclude that $x^2=2.$