I have a column with diameters of 80mm outside and 60mm inside it is pinned at both ends. It has a Youngs Modulus of 200GNm-2 and a Yield Stress of 140MNm-2. From my calculations I found the length of the column to be 5.93m (the column length wasn't given in the drawing) The problem I have now is I' am asked----what will be the mode of failure? At what load would you expect failure to occur? If the column is half of 5.93m what would be the mode of failure? At what load would you expect it to fail? I' am looking for the formulas I need for these equations plus answers and how they were achieved please.......