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  1. #1
    Senior Member euclid2's Avatar
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    chemistry

    The theory of hybridization of atomic orbitals was developed to explain molecular geometry. Sketch and name the shape of each of the following hybrid orbitals of a carbon atom in a compound:

    a) sp
    b) sp^2
    c) sp^3
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  2. #2
    o_O
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    Recall the valence electron configuration of carbon: 2s^2 \ 2p^2

    a) The hybridization of one s and one p forms two sp orbitals which leaves two unhybridized 2p orbitals, all half-filled. Thus when forming bonds, the two 2p orbitals are involved in forming \pi-bonds and the sp orbital would form a \sigma-bond. This is why we normally associated sp hybrid orbitals with triple bonds.

    Consider: \text{H}-\text{C}\equiv \text{C} - \text{H}

    b) Try using similar reasoning as above. One s and two p orbitals form 3 sp^2 hybrid orbitals which leave 1 unhybridized p orbital. The unhybridized p orbital would form a \pi-bond with another half-filled p orbital and a \sigma-bond when looking at the sp^2 orbital. Thus, we normally associate double bonds with sp^2 hybrid orbitals.

    Consider: \text{H}_2\text{C}= \text{O}

    c) Consider: \text{C}\text{H}_4
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