1)

This is called either a complex or compound fraction, I forget which. The key is that we want to multiply the numerator and denominator of the "larger" fraction by something that will clear out the "lesser" fractions. In this case we want the LCM of 6 and 3, which is 6. So:

2)

Again we want to multiply by the number that removes the fractions from the numerator and denominator. Again, in this case, we multiply by 6:

-Dan