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**undefined** If computers are considered, it is not very hard to show why base 2 makes sense in that context. I'm afraid the notion of new civilization adopting a number system isn't very well defined. In general it can make sense to use one base for one context, and another base for another context. From a programming perspective, the bases you run into most often are 2, 10, and 16.

It does not make much sense to use base 2 on paper, because it takes too long to write out the numbers, and it's hard for the eye to distinguish different numbers at a glance, etc.