# Thread: Secondary school's competition - marathon.

1. ## Secondary school's competition - marathon.

Hello everyone.
I would like to start 'marathon' of the exercises from different competition in the secondary school level. (ages 15-18)

Exercise 1.
Let $a,b$ be positive real numbers. Prove that
$\left(1+\frac{a}{b} \right)^m+\left(1+\frac{b}{a} \right)^m \ge 2^{m+1}$
where $m$ is natural.

Enjoy!

2. If $a=b,$ we have the equality so assume, wlog, that $a>b$ and that $a=kb, \ \ k>1.$

We then have to prove that

$(1+k)^{m}+(1+1/k)^{m} > 2^{m+1}.$

Now, $[(1+k)^{m/2}-(1+1/k)^{m/2}]^{2}=(1+k)^{m}+(1+1/k)^{m}-2(1+k)^{m/2}(1+1/k)^{m/2}>0,$
so,
$(1+k)^{m}+(1+1/k)^{m}>2(1+k)^{m/2}(1+1/k)^{m/2}=2[(1+k)(1+1/k)]^{m/2}$

$=2(2+k+1/k)^{m/2}.$

If $k>2,$ then $2+k+1/k>4+1/k=2^{2}+1/k$ and the result follows, so assume that $1 and that $k=1+\alpha$ with $0<\alpha<1.$

Then,
$2+k+1/k=2+(1+\alpha)+1/(1+\alpha)=3+\alpha+1-\alpha+\alpha^{2}-...$,

$=4+\alpha^{2}-\alpha^{3}+...>2^{2},$ and again the result follows.

3. You could a bit easier: AM-GM two times. But your solution is also OK. Now is your turn - send your exercise.

4. O.K.

Exercise 2.

Prove that there do not exist positive integers $x, y, z$ such that

$x^2 +y^2 + z^2 = 2xyz.$

5. $x^2 +y^2 + z^2 = 2xyz$
$(x+y+z)^2=2(x+1)(y+1)(z+1)-2(x+y+z)-2$
$(x+y+z)^2+2(x+y+z)=2(x+1)(y+1)(z+1)-2$
$(x+y+z)(x+y+z+2)=2[(x+1)(y+1)(z+1)-1]$
what is impossible.

Exercise 3.
Calculate
$\sqrt{ \underbrace{44...4}_{2n}+\underbrace{22...2}_{n+1} +\underbrace{88...8}_{n}+7}$