( C ) the circle for equation :
the straight line for equation : .
( m is the real parametre )
Find m in case : tangent for ( C ) .
1. All lines with the equation $\displaystyle y = m(x-4)$ pass through the point P(4,0).
2. Calculate the coordinates of the points of intersection between all lines and the circle. If the line is a tangent then there exists only one point of intersection, that means the discriminante must be zero:
Plug in the linear term for y into the 1st equation:
$\displaystyle x^2-2x+(m(x-4))^2-4(m(x-4)) = 0$
$\displaystyle x^2·(m^2 + 1) - x·(8·m^2 + 4·m + 2) + 16·m^2 + 16·m = 0$
Solve for x:
$\displaystyle x = - \dfrac{\sqrt{- 4·m^2 - 12·m + 1} - 4·m^2 - 2·m - 1}{m^2 + 1} \vee $ $\displaystyle x = \dfrac{\sqrt{- 4·m^2 - 12·m + 1} + 4·m^2 + 2·m + 1}{m^2 + 1}$
As stated before the discriminant must be zero:
$\displaystyle -4m^2-12m+1=0~\implies~m=-\dfrac32-\dfrac12 \sqrt{10}~\vee~m=-\dfrac32+\dfrac12 \sqrt{10}$
3. Plug in this value into the equation of the line.
I've attached a sketch of the circle and the 2 tangents.
I have another way if that's OK.
By completing the square, we find the circle has equation
$\displaystyle (x-1)^{2}+(y-2)^{2}=5$
The tangent line will be a distance from the center of the circle equal to the radius length of $\displaystyle \sqrt{5}$. The center of the circle is at (1,2)
Using the distance between a line and a point formula:
$\displaystyle \frac{|-m(1)+1(2)+4m|}{\sqrt{(-m)^{2}+1}}=\sqrt{5}$
Solving for m gives $\displaystyle m=\frac{\sqrt{10}-3}{2}, \;\ \frac{-(\sqrt{10}+3)}{2}$
Hello, dhiab!
I think I understand what you're asking . . .
The circle is: .$\displaystyle (x-1)^2 + (y-2)^2 \:=\:5$$\displaystyle C$ is the circle: .$\displaystyle x^2 + y^2 - 2x - 4y \:=\:0$
A tangent to $\displaystyle C$ is: .$\displaystyle y \:=\:m(x-4)$
$\displaystyle \text{Find }m.$
. . It has center $\displaystyle P(1,2)$ and radius $\displaystyle r = \sqrt{5}$
The line .$\displaystyle y - 0 \:=\:m(x-4)$ .has slope $\displaystyle m$ and point $\displaystyle Q(0,4)$
$\displaystyle Q$ is one of the $\displaystyle y$-intercepts of the circle.
We are asked for the slope of the tangent at $\displaystyle Q.$
Code:| / | / * * * Q |/* * (0,4)o * *| * * / | * /* | * P * / * | o * * | (1,2) * | *| * - - - * - - - - - - - * - - - | * * | * * * |
The radius $\displaystyle PQ$ has slope: .$\displaystyle \frac{4-2}{0-1} \:=\:-2$
The tangent at $\displaystyle Q$ is perpendicular to that radius.
Therefore: .$\displaystyle m \:=\:\frac{1}{2}$