Please help! I have these last four problems and I am done the course. I have asked other teachers and they are stumped. Any help will be greatly appreciated. I had to attach the file because of all the symbols.
anyway, what methods are you supposed to use here? what were you learning around the time you got this assignment. depending on what system of logic you are using, the approaches might be quite different.
P.S. no one likes to open attachments
Sorry about the attachment but I could not figure out how to type the symbols to the equation. The chapter is predicate logic. It talks about predicates and quantifiers. The first two equations are under quantified expressions. The third equation is under syntax, scope, bound and free and the last is validity. I hope this information will be able to help you to help me.