I guess that by (1,1) they mean 1 related to 1, (2,2) 2 related to 2, etc.

As for c) as I understand it you have x related to y if x+y is even.

Of course x is related to himself because 2x is even.

If x is related to y then y is related to x because of the commutativity of addition (I guess you work in N Z Q or R).

If x is related to y and y related to z then x is not necessarily related to z. Think of the case where you have three odd numbers.

Maybe I made a stupid mistake but does that make sense to you?

As for d, a triangle is related to itself because it has the same angles.

The relation is also symmetric but not transitive.

It may be b) but I don't really understand your notation.