1) Assume now that p is prime and p > 3. Show that $\displaystyle p^2$ divides the numberator of r, r as defined in 9.

2) Since gcd(4,9) = 1,4 E $\displaystyle Z^x$bottom 9. What is o(4) as an element of $\displaystyle Z ^x$ bottom 9

Thanks.

I try to figure out about it and sometime I argue it.