Another example from my textbook that I can't quite figure out. Let p(x), q(x) denote the following open statements.

p(x): x ≤ 3

q(x): x + 1 is odd

If the universe consists of all integers, what are the truth values of the following statements?

a) q(1)

b) ¬p(3)

c) p(7) v q(7)

d) p(3) ^ q(4)

e) ¬(p(-4) v q(-3))

f) ¬p(-4) ^ ¬q(-3)