I've become very confused whilst doing a few practice questions for a digital signal processing exam. Whilst a linear system can be defined as:

The more I think about it the more I don't really get how any system won't be linear with those conditions. Maybe I'm just not thinking of the right systems.

Anyway, here are the four systems I have to analyse:

As far as I can see all equations can fit into the linear proof, but this just doesn't seem to make sense. Can someone help out and give a worked example of one which is and one which isn't linear time invariant, as I can't seem to find anything of that sort in my notes or on the internet. Thanks.