1. ## Smallest Symmetric Relation

I have this question for my homework, and I have absolutely no idea how to prove how a "smallest" relation exist. Any help is appreciated. Below is the question:

"Let X be any set. Let R be a relation on X. Prove there is a smallest symmetric relation that contains R."

2. Originally Posted by TitaniumX
I have this question for my homework, and I have absolutely no idea how to prove how a "smallest" relation exist. Any help is appreciated. Below is the question:

"Let X be any set. Let R be a relation on X. Prove there is a smallest symmetric relation that contains R."
Let $\displaystyle \mathcal{M}=\left\{\mathcal{R}:\mathcal{R}\text{ is a symmetric relation on }X\text{ and }R\subseteq\mathcal{R}\right\}$. The question is $\displaystyle \bigcap_{M\in\mathcal{M}}M$ a symmetric relation on $\displaystyle X$? It is trivially easy to prove that it's a relation, to see that it's symmetric merely note that if $\displaystyle (x,y)\in\bigcap_{M\in\mathcal{M}}M$ then $\displaystyle (x,y)\in N$ for all $\displaystyle N\in\mathcal{M}$ but since each $\displaystyle N$ is symmetric this implies $\displaystyle (y,x)\in N$ for all $\displaystyle N\in\mathcal{M}$ and thus $\displaystyle (y,x)\in\bigcap_{M\in\mathcal{M}}M$. Now it is clear that $\displaystyle \bigcap_{M\in\mathcal{M}}M\supseteq R$ and it is clear that it's the smallest, for if $\displaystyle R\subseteq K$ is a symmetric relation then $\displaystyle K\in\mathcal{M}\implies \bigcap_{M\in\mathcal{M}}M\subseteq K$

3. Alternatively, you can form a relation $\displaystyle R'$ like this: for every $\displaystyle (x,y)\in R$ put $\displaystyle (x,y)$ and $\displaystyle (y,x)$ in $\displaystyle R'$. Then show that $\displaystyle R\subseteq R'$, $\displaystyle R'$ is symmetric, and if any other symmetric relation contains $\displaystyle R$, it contains $\displaystyle R'$ as well.