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Math Help - Vector Subspaces

  1. #1
    Senior Member bugatti79's Avatar
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    Vector Subspaces

    Hi Folks,

    THis is my first exposure to Functional Analysis I am attempting to study and its proving a shock to my little brain. Here also is my first post which I hope is in the correct forum.

    Let V be the vector space consisting of all infinite real sequences. Show that the subset W consisting of all such sequences with only finitely many non-0 entries is a subspace of V

    If I write

     V^n={ (r_1, r_2, r_3) ; r_i \in R} for the vector V. Is this correct? Not sure how to represent the subset W.

     W^n={ (r_1, r_2, 0) ; r_{1,2} \in R} ?

    Thanks
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  2. #2
    MHF Contributor FernandoRevilla's Avatar
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Write (for example) V=\{x=(x_n)_{n\geq 0}:x_n\in\mathbb{R}\} and W=\{x\in V:\exists p\in\mathbb{N},\;x_k=0\textrm{\;if\;}k\geq p\}
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  3. #3
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    fortunately you only need to show 3 things true for W:

    1) the constant 0-sequence has only finitely many non-zero terms. (this is easy).
    2) the sum of any two sequences with only finitely many non-zero terms has only finitely many non-zero terms.

    (hint: any sequence (x_n) with only finitely many non-zero terms has a maximim non-zero term, say x_k. if (y_n) is another such sequence, it has a maximum non-zero term, say y_m. show that if t = max{k,m}, all x_n+y_n for n > t are 0).

    3) you must verify that the sequence (cx_n) has only finitely many non-zero terms if (x_n) does. this is also easy.
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  4. #4
    Senior Member bugatti79's Avatar
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Quote Originally Posted by Deveno View Post
    fortunately you only need to show 3 things true for W:

    1) the constant 0-sequence has only finitely many non-zero terms. (this is easy).
    2) the sum of any two sequences with only finitely many non-zero terms has only finitely many non-zero terms.

    (hint: any sequence (x_n) with only finitely many non-zero terms has a maximim non-zero term, say x_k. if (y_n) is another such sequence, it has a maximum non-zero term, say y_m. show that if t = max{k,m}, all x_n+y_n for n > t are 0).

    3) you must verify that the sequence (cx_n) has only finitely many non-zero terms if (x_n) does. this is also easy.
    1) I dont know what the constant 0 sequence is or why we need it?

    2) If I let x_n=(x_1, x_2, x_3....) and y_n=(y_1, y_2, y_3...)

    Then x_n+y_n=(x_1+y_1, x_2+y_2....)

    x_n+y_n> 0 if n < t,

    W= \{ x_n, y_n \in\mathbb {R}\}

    3) Let c \in \mathbb{R} \therefore cx_n=c(x_1, x_2, x_3)

    This is the best I can do until I get some more guidance....thanks
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  5. #5
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Quote Originally Posted by bugatti79 View Post
    1) I dont know what the constant 0 sequence is or why we need it?

    2) If I let x_n=(x_1, x_2, x_3....) and y_n=(y_1, y_2, y_3...)

    Then x_n+y_n=(x_1+y_1, x_2+y_2....)

    x_n+y_n> 0 if n < t,

    W= \{ x_n, y_n \in\mathbb {R}\}

    3) Let c \in \mathbb{R} \therefore cx_n=c(x_1, x_2, x_3)

    This is the best I can do until I get some more guidance....thanks
    you need to be sure W is not empty. the 0-vector is the traditional choice, because every vector space, no matter how small, must possess an additive identity.

    you want to be sure the sum of two sequences who have only finitely many non-zero terms, is also such a sequence (this is called closure under vector addition). if only finitely many are non-zero, that means after a finite number, everything else is 0. here is one such sequence:

    (x1,x2,x3,.......,xn,0,0,0,0,..........) (everything after xn is 0).

    anothr such sequence might be:

    (y1,y2,y3,......,ym,0,0,0,0,.........) (everything after ym is 0).

    when we add them, we get (supposing n > m, which won't always happen)

    (x1+y1,x2+y2,x3+y3,........,xm+ym,......,xn,0,0,0, 0,........) (everything after xn is 0)

    your sequences are infinite, they never end (because the natural numbers never end).

    this is why we represent them as (xj), where j = 1,2,3,4,5,....... going on forever.

    the constant 0-sequence is the sequence whose terms are all 0:

    (0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,..................).

    you can think of a sequence as a function f: j--->xj. so f(1) = x1, f(2) = x2, etc.

    you can write these as a list (f(1),f(2),f(3),.........), but since the list goes on forever, you can't write it "all" down.
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  6. #6
    MHF Contributor FernandoRevilla's Avatar
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    An alternative for the sum (for example):

    Let x=(x_n) and y=(y_n) be elements of W, then there exits p,q\in \mathbb{N} such that x_k=0 for all k\geq p and y_k=0 for all k\geq q . Choose r=\max\{p,q\} , then x_k+y_k=0 for all k\geq r , which implies x+y=(x_k+y_k)\in W .
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  7. #7
    Senior Member bugatti79's Avatar
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Quote Originally Posted by FernandoRevilla View Post
    An alternative for the sum (for example):

    Let x=(x_n) and y=(y_n) be elements of W, then there exits p,q\in \mathbb{N} such that x_k=0 for all k\geq p and y_k=0 for all k\geq q . Choose r=\max\{p,q\} , then x_k+y_k=0 for all k\geq r , which implies x+y=(x_k+y_k)\in W .
    Thank you Fernando and Deveno. I appreciate the help. Im slowly getting a feel for this topic.

    1) Is the above answer acceptable for the question given ie, a mixture of words and math or must it all be math only?

    2) How do you indicate that the subset W is a subspace of V?

    Thanks
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  8. #8
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    the style of Fernando's response is fairly typical...symbols for precision (especially when describing elements, sets, and conditions), and words for smoother readability. if a subset W satisfies all 3 conditions laid out in post #3, it is a subspace. in words, you would say (having proven those conditions): "since W is a non-empty set closed under vector addition and scalar multiplication, it is a subspace of V". there is not, to my knowledge, any special symbol for "is a subspace of".

    Fernando's post (#6) is a near-perfect demonstration of closure of vector addition, so that leaves you with 2 more conditions to verify.
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  9. #9
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Def: W is a subspace of V if for all x,y \epsilon W and all a,b \epsilon R, ax+by \epsilon W.

    0 does not belong to W so its not a subspace.
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  10. #10
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Quote Originally Posted by Hartlw View Post
    Def: W is a subspace of V if for all x,y \epsilon W and all a,b \epsilon R, ax+by \epsilon W.
    0 does not belong to W so its not a subspace.
    Are you saying that the sequence of all zeros does not contain only finitely many non-zero term?
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  11. #11
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    From original post:
    "Let V be the vector space consisting of all infinite real sequences. Show that the subset W consisting of all such sequences with only finitely many non-0 entries is a subspace of V"

    A sequence of zeros does not have any non-zero entries, so it cannot have finiteley many of them. 0 does not belong to W.
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  12. #12
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Quote Originally Posted by Hartlw View Post
    A sequence of zeros does not have any non-zero entries, so it cannot have finiteley many of them. 0 does not belong to W.
    Now you are saying that zero is not a finite counting number.
    Is that what you really mean to say.

    Is this true, "A sequence that has no 1's in it, contains only finitely many 1's."?
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  13. #13
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Are you asserting that "0" is NOT a finite number? The 0 vector has NO non-zero entries and 0 certainly is finite.
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  14. #14
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Quote Originally Posted by Plato View Post
    Now you are saying that zero is not a finite counting number.
    Is that what you really mean to say.

    Is this true, "A sequence that has no 1's in it, contains only finitely many 1's."?
    This is what I am saying: A sequence of zeros does not have any non-zero entries, so it cannot have finiteley many of them. 0 does not belong to W.

    If I have no books do I have a finite numbr of them?

    What are you saying?
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  15. #15
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    Re: Vector Subspaces

    Quote Originally Posted by Hartlw View Post
    If I have no books do I have a finite numbr of them?
    What are you saying?
    That is exactly what I am saying.
    Zero is a finite number.
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