Let X be a normed vector space with Banach dual space X ′,let f be a non-zero element of X′, and let x0 be an element of X \ ker(f ). Show that every element x of X may be written in the form x = αx0 + y, with α in C and y in ker(f ). Deduce that ({f }◦down)◦up coincides with the subspace Cf .

Prove that, for any finite-dimensional subspace M of X′, (M◦down)◦up = M.

[M◦up = {f ∈ X′: f (x) = 0∀x ∈ M}, M◦down= {x ∈ X : f (x) = 0∀f ∈ M }].

Does anyone know how to do this question?