Let M be a subspace of the normed vector space X, let x lie in X, and let d(x,M)=inf{norm)(x+y); y in M}.

Prove the following results:

i) For all elements f in the Banach dual space X' of X such that norm of f on X' ≤ 1, and f/m (f restricted to m) = 0, and, for all elements y in M,

(mod)f(x) ≤ norm(x+y)

ii) By considering a linear functional on the subspace lin ( M union {x}), or otherwise, use the Hahn-Banach Theorem to prove that

d(x,M)= sup { f(x): f in X', norm f on X' ≤ 1, f/m =0}

and to show that there exists such an element fo for which fo(x)=d(x,M).

iii) Deduce that M is dense in X if and only if the only element f in X' for which f/m=0 is itself 0.

Many thanks.