
HahnBanach Theorem
Let M be a subspace of the normed vector space X, let x lie in X, and let d(x,M)=inf{norm)(x+y); y in M}.
Prove the following results:
i) For all elements f in the Banach dual space X' of X such that norm of f on X' ≤ 1, and f/m (f restricted to m) = 0, and, for all elements y in M,
(mod)f(x) ≤ norm(x+y)
ii) By considering a linear functional on the subspace lin ( M union {x}), or otherwise, use the HahnBanach Theorem to prove that
d(x,M)= sup { f(x): f in X', norm f on X' ≤ 1, f/m =0}
and to show that there exists such an element fo for which fo(x)=d(x,M).
iii) Deduce that M is dense in X if and only if the only element f in X' for which f/m=0 is itself 0.
Many thanks.

(1)Since $\displaystyle f\leq1$, and f=0 if restricted to M, then
$\displaystyle f(x)=f(x+y)\leqx+y$ for all y in M.
(2)By (1), we have d(x,M) is greater or equal to sup { f(x): f in X', norm f on X' ≤ 1, f/m =0},
By HahnBanach Theorem, there is f satisfies the required condition,
thus the conclusion is proved.
(3)if M is dense in X, then for any element x in X, there is sequence in M converge to the element, since f in X' is continous, thus f(x)=0, for any x in X.
and the "only if" part can be easily proved by Arguement combined with HahnBanach Theorem which leads to contradiction.