The first (outside) minus sign in is the minus sign from ; note there is also a minus sign on ; this is because , from the basic properties of logarithms (which you should know).
My book did something confusing. I'm not sure how to get from one step to the other.
But I got when is and
How did it turn into 2 instead of 1/2? And also, where did the sign in front of the whole thing come from?
The original problem is to evaluate:
I appreciate the help! Thank you!