To determine the volume of an object. I understand everything except how to figure out what the outer and inner radii are. My textbook does not give a clear method to determine what R(x) and r(x) should be for the Disk Method or what p(x) or (h)x should be for the Shell method. I have noticed there seems to be certain patterns and if there is just one curve and it is rotated around the x-axis, then it's just pi * the definite integral of R(x)^2 - r(x)^2. And the Shell method is 2 pi * times the definite integral of p(x) * (h)x). I just don't know how to find the radii for the Disk method and p(x) and h(x) for the Shell method. Online tutors that use the same textbook(calcchat.com) can't even figure it out either or at least explain it to me. When the axis of rotation is not the x or y axis, I can't figure it out a method to setup the integral(s). I have spent many hours trying to figure out a method to find how to do this with no luck, because the book sucks and I cannot find anything on the net that really explains it either!