1. ## Arctangent Integration help

I need help integrating:

xarctan(x) / ((1+x^2)^2)

I did trig substitutions like this:

u=tan(theta)
du=sec^2(theta) d(theta)

So I ended up with:

Integral of (tan(theta)*arctan(tan(theta))*(sec^2(theta))) / ((1+tan^2(theta))^2)

Which simplifies into:

Integral of:

(Theta)(tan(theta))(sec^2(theta)) / (sec^2(theta))^2

The sec^2(theta)'s cancel so I have:

(theta)(tan(theta))(cos^2(theta)), which simplifies into:

(theta)(sin(theta))(cos(theta))

Is that right, and if so, how do I integrate it?

2. Try integration by parts with
$u=\tan^{-1}(x)$ and

$dv=\frac{x}{(x^2+1)^2}dx$

3. I also did that:

u=arctanx
du=1/(x^2+1)

dv=x/(x^2+1)^2
v= -1/(2(x^2+1))

So then I get:

-arctan(x)/(2(x^2+1)) + .5*Integral of 1/(1+x^2)^2

That's UV - Integral of vdu. I don't know what to do from there...

4. $\int\frac{1}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$

set
$x=tan(\theta)$ then
$dx=sec^2(\theta)d\theta$

so you get

$\int\frac{1}{(1+\tan^2(\theta))^2}sec^2(\theta)d\t heta=$

$\int\frac{sec^2(\theta)}{sec^4(\theta)}d\theta=\in t\cos^2(\theta)d\theta$

I think you can get it from here

5. I took cos^2(theta) to (1/2)(1+cos(2theta)).

So I now have it down to:

-arctan(x)/(2(x^2+1)) + (1/2)*((1/2)theta + (1/4)sin (2theta))

So, with the subsitution x=tan(theta), theta=arctan(x), so this factors to:

(1/4)arctan(x) + (1/8)sin (2theta))

What do I do with the (1/8)sin(2theta)? It's not good to put arctan(x) in the sin, to have (1/8)sin(2arctan(x)), right?

I put it to 2sin(theta)cos(theta), so it's:

(1/4)arctan(x) + (1/4)sin(theta)cos(theta)

What's the best way to factor the last bit?

6. since

$\tan(\theta)=\frac{x}{1}$

and by defintion

$tan(\theta)=\frac{opposite}{adjacent}$

we can figure the the hypotenuse using the pythagorean theorem...

$h=\sqrt{x^2+1}$

so using the defintion of trig functions...

$\sin(\theta)=\frac{opp}{hyp}=\frac{x}{\sqrt{x^2+1} }$

by a similar argument

$\cos(\theta)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{x^2+1}}$