1. ## Integration

Hi Everyone,
$\int_0^\pi {\sqrt {2 + 2\sin (x)} } dx$

This is what I've tried so far:
when I substitute
$z = 1 + \sin (x)$
and
$x \to \pi ,z \to 1$
$x \to 0,z \to 1$

I got:
$\sqrt 2\int_1^1 {\frac{1}{{\sqrt {2 - z} }}dz}$

the new boundaries is my main problem here, it will give me a value of 0.
However, when I check my answer, it should be
$4\sqrt 2$

2. ## Re: Integration

The problem is that when you replace the limits, you're changing the definition for the path of integration. Usually just substituting the limits works: if $s=4t$, then "s goes from 4 to 12" and "t goes from 1 to 3" mean the same thing.

In your case, however, since $z=1+\sin x$, as x goes from 0 to $\pi$, z goes from 1 to 2 (when $x=\frac{\pi}{2}$) and then back to 1 again. That's not necessarily a problem, but your equation for x is different for the two ranges.

For x between 0 and $\frac{\pi}{2}$, we want $x=\sin^{-1}(z-1)$, but for x between $\frac{\pi}{2}$ and $\pi$, we want $x=\pi-\sin^{-1}(z-1)$ (since the inverse sine function is defined to be between $-\frac{\pi}{2}$ and $\frac{\pi}{2}$). When you plug into the integrand, you get the same thing, but when you plug into dx, you get a negative sign on one but not the other.

Once you see the problem, you work around it: since the integrand is symmetric around $x=\frac{\pi}{2}$,
$\int_0^\pi \sqrt{2-2\sin x}\,dx = 2\int_0^\frac{\pi}{2} \sqrt{2-2\sin x}\,dx = 2\sqrt{2}\int_1^2 \frac{1}{\sqrt{2-z}}\,dz=4\sqrt{2}$.

- Hollywood

3. ## Integration

Hi Hollywood,
Can I say:
whenever the curve is oscillating along x-axis (or it is a one-to-many function) when we integrate it by substitution, we should break it into few parts (local minimum to local maximum / local maximum to local minimum) to solve it?

4. ## Re: Integration

No, the substitution method can still work (and usually does work, in my experience) even if the substitution function is not one-to-one. For example,

$\int_{-1}^2 2x^3 \,dx = \frac{2^4}{2} - \frac{(-1)^4}{2} = 8 - \frac{1}{2} = \frac{15}{2}$

Substituting $u=x^2$, $du=2x\,dx$ gives

$\int_1^4 u \,du = \frac{4^2}{2} - \frac{1^2}{2} = 8 - \frac{1}{2} = \frac{15}{2}$

but as x goes from -1 to 2, u goes from 1 to 0 and then back to 1 on its way to 4.

- Hollywood

By the way, in my previous post the integrand should be $\sqrt{2+2\sin{x}}$, not $\sqrt{2-2\sin{x}}$. Sorry about that.

5. ## Re: Integration

Another point: If you set z= 1+ sin(x) then dz= cos(x) dx. You cannot just replace "dx" with "dz". That substitution simply will not work here.