1. Find parametric equations for the semicircle: x^2 + y^2 = a^2 using as parameter the arc length s measured counterclockwise from the point (a, 0) to the point (x, y).

We were not taught this, and I don't think the book really helps. I was wondering if somebody could clearly explain this concept and problem to me.

2. Find the length of the curve: x = cos t, y = t + sin t, [0, [pi]].

Here's where I get stuck. I know that the length of a curve is the integral evaluated from a to b (or, in this case, from zero to pi) of the quadrature of dx/dt and dy/dt. However, upon doing that, I get the integral of the square root of (-sin t)^2 + (1 + cos t)^2. I cannot use u substitution (although that does not rule out it's possibility of use) and if I make (-sin t)^2 into (sin t)^2 and expand (1 + cos t)^2, I get the integral of sqrt(2 + 2cos t), which then, by pulling out the square root of 2, makes the integral of the square root of 1 + cos t. I...don't know what to do then.

I would appreciate any help.