5. Get a common denominator so that you can perform the subtraction, then divide by x. You should be able to substitute x = 1 then.

7.

Now make use of the fact that .

8. This is a perfect candidate for L'Hospital's Rule.

9. Since logarithms are only defined for positive values of the independent variable, is it possible to approach 0 from the left? What does this tell you about this problem?

11. Divide top and bottom by .