... is the chain rule. Straight continuous lines differentiate downwards (integrate up) with respect to x, and the straight dashed line similarly but with respect to the dashed balloon expression (the inner function of the composite which is subject to the chain rule).
The general drift is...
Do long division to split up the improper fraction,
Spoiler:
Spoiler:
If the new format is shrinking pics, full-size here.
... is the chain rule. Straight continuous lines differentiate downwards (integrate up) with respect to x, and the straight dashed line similarly but with respect to the dashed balloon expression (the inner function of the composite which is subject to the chain rule).
The general drift is...
Do long division to split up the improper fraction,
Spoiler:
Spoiler:
If the new format is shrinking pics, full-size here.