I'm currently reading an AP Calculus BC review book, and one of its example problems has to do with finding the area of the inner loop of a limaçon.

The formula for the limaçon is

. I'm supposed to find the area of just its inner loop. The book begins its problem walkthrough by stating that "in the inner loop,

sweeps out the region as

goes from

to

." Those would, therefore, be the limits of integration.

I'm really shaky on polar coordinate geometry, though, so I have no idea how you're supposed to have figured that out. How do you find the

values on a polar coordinate graph? I'm familiar with the basic polar-cartesian conversion equations

,

,

, and

, but I don't know how to find

values when the polar graph is as complicated as a looped limaçon.

Thanks for any help you could give me!