may i know how to solve this question? i tried it , as seen in the picture, but got stuck
The three-dimensional case is a little less obvious than this, but it also amounts to a simple substitution of , checking that can be gotten rid of and then the integral really does turn out to have a value that is dependent on only, and therefore only on the location of the end-points of the path.
Moral of the story: Nothing beats memory when it comes to problem-solving . I am told that all experts mainly rely on memory (aka. experience), and use reasoning only when they absolutely have to.