1. Trgnometric integrals

How would you evaluate this indefinite integral?
tan^4x dx

I began with Seperating it into two tans. Both to the 2nd power.
Then I got lost. How do I get to my answer?

How would you evaluate this indefinite integral?
tan^4x dx

I began with Seperating it into two tans. Both to the 2nd power.
Then I got lost. How do I get to my answer?
Use the chain rule.

$y = \tan^4{x} = (\tan{x})^4$.

Let $u = \tan{x}$ so that $y = u^4$.

$\frac{du}{dx} = \sec^2{x}$

$\frac{dy}{du} = 4u^3$

$= 4\tan^3{x}$.

Therefore

$\frac{dy}{dx} = 4\sec^2{x}\tan^3{x}$.

How would you evaluate this indefinite integral?
tan^4x dx

I began with Seperating it into two tans. Both to the 2nd power.
Then I got lost. How do I get to my answer?
$\int \tan^4{x} \, dx$

$\int \tan^2{x}(\sec^2{x} - 1) \, dx$

$\int \tan^2{x}\sec^2{x} - \tan^2{x} \, dx$

$\int \tan^2{x}\sec^2{x} \, dx - \int \tan^2{x} \, dx$

$\int \tan^2{x}\sec^2{x} \, dx - \int \sec^2{x} - 1 \, dx$

first integral ... $u =tan{x}$ ... $du = \sec^2{x} \, dx$

$\frac{\tan^3{x}}{3} - \tan{x} + x + C$

4. Originally Posted by skeeter
$\int \tan^4{x} \, dx$

$\int \tan^2{x}(\sec^2{x} - 1) \, dx$

$\int \tan^2{x}\sec^2{x} - \tan^2{x} \, dx$

$\int \tan^2{x}\sec^2{x} \, dx - \int \tan^2{x} \, dx$

$\int \tan^2{x}\sec^2{x} \, dx - \int \sec^2{x} - 1 \, dx$

first integral ... $u =tan{x}$ ... $du = \sec^2{x} \, dx$

$\frac{\tan^3{x}}{3} - \tan{x} + x + C$