Questions regarding my next phase in self taught algebra

Hello everyone, I have almost completed the self teaching guide through Algebra I. The last chapters end with quadratic polynomial expressions, equations, and applications e.g. in the form

While I was surfing through some posts today I stumbled across this expression. Im not sure what to call because it is not a quadratic expression yet it is factored in a seemingly similar manner.

Would some one please tell me what this type of expression is and what the rules for factoring it are?

Also when might I expect to see expressions beyond quadratic polynomials? Algebra II?

Thank you