1. Two plane vectors ai + bj and ci + dj are in the same direction the the ratios a:b and c:d are equal. Here a+lb is (1-3l)i - 2j and this is parallel to -i-3j if the ratios (1-3l):-2 and -1:-3 are equal: that is, cross-multiplying, if (1-3l)(-3) = (-1)(-2). So 1-3l = -2/3, l = 5/9.